Tonstake.com is a custodial staking provider, the structure is similar to that of large cryptocurrency exchanges. Users send funds to the deposit address, and the system automatically sends funds to multiple validator nodes. If the user wants to withdraw funds, the system will automatically send the funds to the withdrawal address before sending them to the user. The advantage of custodial's staking provider is that it can have more service items, including enterprise-level API support, reporting, private node services, and lower entry thresholds. The security risks faced will be problems in the traditional information security field. Tonstake.com will charge 10% of the user's interest as a handling fee.
Ton Whales is a non-custodial staking provider, and the deposit and withdrawal addresses are all done automatically by smart contracts (automatically send funds to validators through smart contracts). The risk is that in novel smart contracts, there may be smart contract vulnerabilities unknown to the developer. Ton Whales can reduce a lot of server operating costs in terms of system operation and maintenance. The current system is quite stable, and Ton Whales will charge 25% of the user's interest as a handling fee. Ton Whales is currently the largest staking service provider.
In fact, the above two structures are all for TON holders to have the opportunity to participate in staking services as a starting point. A more complete Nominator
role is described in the original TON blockchain white paper. Nominator has several features: 1. It is a smart contract, 2. A smart contract for investment (so TON holders will escrow funds to Nominator), 3. It will score the validator according to the health degree, 4. Send the funds to the validator according to the health degree weight, 5. Can participate in the voting of the TON blockchain, and 6.Nominator will earn part of the commission. I believe that in the future Nominator will become the main mechanism for staking services. The current Tonstake.com and Ton Whales are the product of a short transition period.